Candida Auris, Mushrooms that Threaten the World

Today, scientists are worrying about the deadly fungus that threatens the world. The fungus is Candida auris. According to the United States health agency (CDC), Candida auris is a yeast that is usually alive and not harmful to the skin and mucous membranes, but threatens global health. Further explained that, the deadly fungal infection is resistant to the main antimicrobial drugs, which means it will be resistant to anti-fungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections.

Reporting from the New York Times, the fungus has spread throughout the world, such as in England, Spain, India, Venezuela, and the United States. According to Tom Chiller, a head of the fungal branch on the CDC “These are creatures from black lagoons that have bubbled and are now everywhere.” The Candida auris mushroom was first discovered in 2009 which came out of the ear of a patient in Japan and the CDC issued a warning for the first time about Candida auris in 2016 and now the fungus is becoming a serious threat.

This fungus is a serious threat because this fungus can survive on the surface and can spread from person to person in hospitals and clinics. In fact, half of the population tested in several nursing homes in the Chicago area have been positively infected with Candida auris fungi. Candida auris infection is the deadliest for people who have a weak immune system, such as parents and young people. The CDC records as many as 587 case reports of the fungus Candida auris in the United States.

The initial symptoms caused by this fungus are fever and fatigue. This disease can be fatal, if the yeast spreads to the blood, brain or heart. The strains of drug-resistant Candida auris are genetically different on various continents, and show that drug resistance develops separately, but simultaneously throughout the world. Until now there has been no clarity about increasing this mushroom. However, there is a theory which states that the use of fungicides in plants encourages Candida auris to develop resistance.

Sky River Phenomenon, Really?

Generally, we know the river that flows on land. However, near the atmospheric layer, scientists say, there is also a river. As Live Science proclaims, rivers in the atmosphere are responsible for some rainfall in certain regions. In this case, it is mentioned in the western United States. The river is where water meets and flows in the same direction. On land, rainfall accumulates in trenches and cliffs, joins with the abundance of water around it, and forms tributaries which later become large rivers which lead to the sea.

Water in the atmosphere behaves similarly, and forms rivers in the sky. Hydroclimatologist at the University of Illinois, Francina Dominguez explained, “Rivers in the atmosphere are long corridors and intense water vapor channels.” This term began when meteorologists, namely Yong Zhu and Reginald Newell, published the results of their research in the journal Geophysical Research Letters in the 1990s. In this study they described their findings about the tropospheric river, which is an area in the troposphere where water vapor accumulates and lasts for days at a time.

Rivers in the atmosphere can be hundreds of miles wide and over a thousand miles long, and the amount of water in the form of steam that flows through them is comparable to the largest land rivers in the world. “These sky-based rivers usually form above the ocean, when large cold lines move from west to east,” Dominguez said. Atmospheric rivers are a global phenomenon. It appears in the northern and southern hemispheres, extending from the tropics or subtropics to the middle latitudes, more than 30 degrees north or south of the equator.

In some cases, atmospheric rivers can cause flash floods to cause property damage and death. Some areas are affected by atmospheric rivers, including Chile, Australia, South Africa, and Western Europe. It is estimated that 90 percent of the moisture in the air comes from atmospheric rivers, said Dominguez. That means that atmospheric rivers play a key role in distributing water vapor throughout the world.

Amazingly, Australia Will Mine Water on the Moon

The Australian Space Agency, known as ASA, reveals that within the next 5 years they plan to mine water on the Moon. Australia has indeed been known to have experience in agriculture and mining in remote locations, similar to Mars. Water that will be mined from the Moon will then be processed to become a source of rocket fuel. According to Andrew Dempster, a Director of the Australian Space Engineering Research Center at the University of New South Wales revealed that “Bringing material from the surface of the Earth into orbit or into space requires a lot of money, if you can produce water in space at a lower cost than there, then You are in front. ”

Several resource companies in Australia have adapted terrestrial technology for space. One of the largest oil and gas producers registered in Australia, Woodside Petroleum, has partnered with NASA to use robotic technology to improve safety on offshore platforms. Dempster also added “I believe that taking a commercial approach to extra-terrestrial business and utilizing a fast-growing early culture in Australia will be key to the growth of the space program in the country.” Australia has been able to become one of the world players in the space race with WRESAT’s launch in just 10 years since the commencement of space travel in 1967.

WRESAT is the first satellite made by Australia. And in 1969, the Parkes National Facility radio telescope in Australia received a television signal that allowed 600 million people or one fifth of that number to be able to witness Neil Armstrong’s first step on the Moon. “We are not burdened by large sluggish agents and large multinational companies,” said Dempster. “There are many people who are agile with lots of interesting ideas working in this field. Success can happen very quickly.”

Opportunities for Humans Live on Planet Mars

Observations made with two spacecraft have confirmed the presence of methane on Mars. This evidence shows the possibility of life on Mars and increases the chance for humans to live there. Researchers believe the ice sheet east of the Gale crater, which is believed to be a dry lake, is a source of methane on Mars. This discovery was reported in the journal Nature Geoscience. “This is very interesting and very unexpected,” Marco Giuranna of Rome’s National Astrophysics Institute told AFP, as quoted by IFL Science. “Two fully independent investigation lines point to the same area from the most likely source of methane,” he added.

In June 2013, the Mars Express investigation operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) measured 15.5 parts per billion in the atmosphere above Gale Crater. The presence of methane in the area was later confirmed by the Curiosty explorer robot belonging to NASA space agency within 24 hours. To test whether this finding is true or not, the researchers divided the area around the crater into 250 x 250 square kilometers and ran a million emissions models of computer models for each part. Meanwhile, other teams studied surface images of Mars to compare them with similar features on Earth, where methane was released.

As a result, they believe that it is frozen methane under rock formations. Methane is a naturally occurring gas which is a by-product of organic processes, such as animal feces or human fart. Although this is the main indication that is the basis of life on Earth, it may not apply equally to Mars. “Methane is important because it can be an indicator of microbial life. But life may not exist, because methane can be produced by the abiotic process,” explained Giuranna. “Although it is not a direct biosignature (biological marker) of life, methane can add to the feasibility of regulating Mars, because some types of microbes can use methane as a carbon and energy source.”

MRT in Advanced Countries VS MRT in Developing Countries (Part 2)

One characteristic of a country is said to be developed or developed can be seen from the facilities or infrastructure owned by the country, such as the presence of modern transportation equipment. This transportation tool can be in the form of transportation on land, sea or air. One means of transportation that is a symbol of the progress of a country is characterized by the presence of modern trains or MRT. Here are some countries that already have an MRT, namely:

  1. South Korea

Not only in Japan, South Korea also has a subway located in Seoul City. In fact, this train has been named the longest subway in the world with a total track length of 940 kilometers. This train is known as the Seoul Subway and was first opened in 1974 to serve the metropolitan area in the city of Seoul.

Seoul Subway is the busiest subway after Tokyo, because in 2012 the train has carried 2,518 passengers. This train consists of 22 rapid transits, commuter lines and light metro. Seoul Subway also has a crossing line located in northwest South Korea.

  1. Dubai

Dubai Metro, which is a train in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The train was inaugurated on September 9, 2009 and became the first urban train on the Arabian Peninsula. This train can help tourists to explore in the City of Dubai. The uniqueness is, Dubai Metro is operated automatically without a driver with 10 transit stations. Until 2016, Dubai Metro became the world record holder as the longest driverless metro network in the world with a route length of 75 kilometers. And the plan, by 2020 the number of stations will increase to 17 by adding a 15-kilometer line.

  1. Algeria

One of the countries in the African region that has rapid transit is Algeria. This train is known as the Metro Algiers which was inaugurated in the 1980s. Initially, Algiers Metro had experienced difficulties in continuing development. This is due to problems related to security and financial difficulties experienced by the country. Finally, the Algiers Metro was officially operated commercially on November 1, 2011. The train connects Tafourah – Grande Poste to Haï El Badr with a track length of 9.2 kilometers. Algiers Metro has 10 stations with 9 stations underground. However, since July 2015, the Algerian-owned train has expanded four stations from Haï el Badr “to” El Harrach Center with a total route length of 13.5 kilometers.

Recent Findings, The Royal Castle of Ramses II Kingdom

Archaeologists discovered the Ancient Egyptian Palace at a royal temple south of Cairo, Egypt. The building was found adjacent to the Temple of Ramses II on the ancient site of Abydos, an important city that was home to the tombs of early period Egyptian kings. Sameh Iskander, a researcher from New York University, said his team found a rocky road at the southwest entrance to the temple. The road led them to the entrance of another building which was decorated by cartouches, Egyptian hieroglyphic signs that showed the power of King Ramses II. Around the end of the temple, the researchers excavated and discovered rocks decorated with royal symbols.

According to the University College London Report, the ruins of the ancient city of Abydos itself are located 482 kilometers south of Cairo, precisely in a desert west of the Nile River.  This site is home to the royal necropolis, where the Pharaoh of the early dynasty was buried. In the city of Abydos there are also several temples dedicated to important figures, including the god Osiris and Pharaoh Seti I. Around 2025 BC until 1700 BC, the city became the main center of worship for the cult of Osiris. “This new discovery will certainly confirm that Ramses II, like his father Seti, saw Abydos as the place of origin of royal rule,” said Professor Joann Fletcher, an Egyptian scientist involved in the research from the University of York.

“The fact that Ramses II needed a palace in Abydos also revealed that he not only made a new temple at that location, but spent enough time there to guarantee his needs,” he said. “These findings have balanced Abydos’s role as a burial site and temple,” he added. Ramses II was known as the Ramses the Great, or in Greek called Ozymandias. He is thought to have ruled from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. As one of the most important rulers of ancient Egypt, Ramses II led several military campaigns which succeeded in securing his territory in several parts of the Levant. He built large temples such as the Ramesseum complex, and left a number of cartouches on many existing monuments. For archaeologists, this newly discovered building will greatly contribute to understanding the temples that were built in that period.

MRT in Developed Countries VS MRT in Developing Country (Part 1)

One characteristic of a country is said to be developed or developed can be seen from the facilities or infrastructure owned by the country, such as the presence of modern transportation equipment. This transportation tool can be in the form of transportation on land, sea or air. One means of transportation that is a symbol of the progress of a country is characterized by the presence of modern trains or MRT. Here are some countries that already have an MRT, namely:

  1. Thailand

Train or MRT in Bangkok, Thailand began operating officially for the public in 2004. The train can accommodate more than 420 thousand passengers every day. The train also has two monorail lines and three heavy train lines. Bangkok has around 35 stations operating and spread along 43 kilometers of this train track. In Thailand, the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line is better known as rotfaifa mahanakhon or rotfai taidin which means subway.

  1. Japan

Japan is the first country in Asia to use this train. Operated for the first time in 1964 at high speed, which can reach 320 km / hour. In Japan. This train is better known as the Shinkansen and gets the nickname bull train. With this train, you can travel to various cities in a very short time, because this train is known for its timeliness, comfort, safety and efficiency.

  1. Europe

In the northwestern region of Europe has a train called Eurostar. This train connects between London and mainland Europe. Eurostar can pass up to speeds of 300 300 km / h through the Chunnel under the English Channel. This train can be used to visit countries in the European region, such as Britain, the Netherlands and France. Uniquely, this train provides free Wi-Fi services for passengers.

  1. United States

One of the problems in the United States in the past was congestion, until finally the government built a train or Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) located in San Francisco. BART is able to overcome congestion problems after 30 years of operation. BART was also an inspiration for other cities in Uncle Sam’s country to build subways, such as New York which built subways in October 1904, Boston and Philadelphia

Capsule Hotel, Cheap Accommodation For Backpackers

At present, capsule hotels are already known as one of the mainstay types of accommodation for backpacker travelers. Uniquely if viewed from the background of a capsule hotel, it is actually not intended for backpacker tourists. Capsule hotels were first present in Tokyo, Japan in 1972 with the name Nagakin Capsule Tower. The hotel consists of 140 capsule rooms which are divided into 14 floors. This hotel was designed by a legendary Japanese architect, named Kisho Kurokawa, because he saw the opportunities that exist from the work culture in Japan. The Japanese state has been approved as one of the busy countries, where people have dedication and high demands for work, making workers often overtime.

In addition, they are also known to often spend time drinking together at Izakaya, which is a kind of drinking bar with snacks after hours of work. The idea of ​​a capsule hotel originated from the demands of high work and a short time, so that workers had difficulty returning home. Besides that, it is also influenced by the very expensive taxi prices and limited train schedules in Japan. Finally, a capsule hotel was created which was the choice to rest for a few hours and clean up to be ready to work the next day. Initially, the capsule hotel had a fairly large room size, until in 1979 capsule hotels inaugurated in Osaka began to change the size of capsule hotels that exist today.

Increasingly, it turns out that capsule hotels are not only in demand by workers but also backpacker tourists, especially foreign tourists. Therefore, capsule hotel operators in Japan began to attach instructions and regulations in English. From Japan, the capsule hotel concept was also adapted by other countries in Asia to Europe, although in different forms. Like in Kuala Lumpur which has capsule hotels in industrial style, in Kyoto also has a capsule hotel with a monochrome color design, or in Rio de Janeiro which has a capsule hotel with street art style.

Marine Conservation and Sustainable Tourism

To realize the Sustainable Development Objectives of the ecosystem in the sea, cooperation and roles are needed from all parties, especially the community. This is because the livelihoods of more than three billion people come from marine and coastal biodiversity. The surface of the earth consists of about 70% of the ocean, where it is stored in the world’s largest source of protein. However, human creativity affects 40% of the ocean. Some of these human activities damage the oceans, because they produce pollution, causing loss of biodiversity and scarcity of resources. There are several things that can be done to realize sustainable development, such as managing and protecting marine ecosystems to strengthen ecosystems in the oceans and coastal areas and take actions aimed at increasing ocean productivity.

In addition, excessive fishing, destructive fishing practices and illegal fishing must be stopped immediately through rules and guidelines regarding fishing exploitation. Considering this, various strategies and initiatives have been produced at national and international levels that contribute to the conservation of marine ecosystems, biodiversity and oceans, such as forming a Waste Free Marine Alliance. The Alliance has several initiatives to preserve the oceans with the following objectives:

  1. Promote the conservation of the oceans from industrial, scientific and conservation leaders who aim to create a healthy and free ocean and pollution.
  2. Avoid and reduce waste that reaches waterways and oceans.
  3. Encouraging millions of people around the world to clean up the rubbish in the ocean and raise awareness about the impact of waste on the marine ecosystem.

According to Ocean Conservancy, everyone can contribute to ocean conservation activities in the following ways:

  1. Enhancing knowledge: Ocean Conservancy works with companies and academies to increase knowledge about marine pollution.
  2. Provide education to everyone. This is done to provide information to people around the sea especially and people in other places about how to stop the flow of garbage in the water and ocean streams.
  3. Involving everyone in making solutions. This is done by making alliances and promoting work with industry leaders, governments, academics, communities to produce innovative solutions that address ocean pollution.
  4. Promote policies and laws that support research, prevention, reduction of marine waste, and thus strengthen the vision of reducing rubbish debris in the sea.

See the Top Countries in the World

Countries and continents in this world were created by God with different conditions. There is a country or continent with many high mountains, some have no mountains and only have beaches and seas. Which country is the highest in the world? It turns out that Bhutan, which is in the north of India, is the highest country in the world. This country has an average height of 3,280 meters above sea level (masl).

However, this country is not easy to access. There are only five countries in the world that have direct flights there. In addition, flights are also quite frightening because the aircraft must land at Paro Airport which is challenging for pilots. At present, only a few certified pilots can land at Paro Airport. Besides that, traveling to Bhutan is also quite expensive because a large daily tourism tax must be borne by tourists. But once entering Bhutan, beautiful panoramas directly decorate the view. Stunning high mountains, monasteries and fortifications, and people’s lifestyles that have barely changed for centuries have become rare to obtain.

Highest country

Reporting from the Telegraph, four countries in the Asian Continent are the highest in the world. These countries besides Bhutan are Nepal with an average height of 3,265 meters, Tajikistan as high as 3,186 meters, and Kyrgyzstan around 2,988 meters.

Meanwhile, Lesotho, which is in the African Continent with an average height of 2,161 meters, is the only Black Continent to enter the world’s top 10 highest countries.

The next rank is occupied by Anddora from the European Continent with an average height of 1,996 meters. Countries in the Americas, namely Chile as high as 1,871 meters placed seventh.

Sourced from map sources from Portland State University, the average height of the planet is around 1,884 meters. Here are the top 10 countries with the highest average height in the world, released from the Telegraph:

1 Bhutan – average height: 3,280 meters

2 Nepal – 3,265 meters

3 Tajikistan – 3,186 meters

4 Kyrgyzstan – 2,988 meters

5 Lesotho – 2,161 meters

6 Andorra – 1,996 meters

7 Chile – 1,871 meters

8 China – 1,840 meters

9 Armenia – 1,792 meters

10 Greenland – 1,792 meters